Communications are the processes that are used to communicate or spread the information. In other words, communication is nothing but a message. Communication is necessary to share or exchange information with one another by speaking, writing, or by using various equipments. Communication is necessary part of our life. It is even harder to imagine us without communication. In the fast moving world, innumerable events occur every day. We cannot expect information to reach us individually at all times. We can communicate through several aids to distant places without any difficulty in the least possible time. However some remote rural places still suffer from lack of communication. Television has however helped to some extent. Now a day’s India has achieved a lot in space programme and space technology. India is developing its own communication satellites to geostationary orbit.
According to G.G. Brown “ Communication is transfer of information from one person to another,whether or not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver ”.
Fred G. Meyer defines “Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or messages”.
Berelson dan Stainer states that “Communication is a process sending information, idea, emotion, ability, etc. By using symbols such as words, pictures, numbers, etc” .
Communication can be classified as Verbal communication and Non verbal communication.
Verbal communication: Verbal communication is one of the ways for people to communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of verbal communication include sound, words, speaking, language, etc. verbal communication can be oral or written.
Oral: Through mouth; Transient. The basic requirements are mouth, language.
Written: It is etched. The basic requirement is ability to read and write particular language.
Nonverbal communication: Nonverbal communication is usually by materials such as pictures, written messages, symbols, signs, emoticons, expressions, etc.
Based on the number of people involved communication is again classified as
ü Interpersonal communication
ü Intrapersonal communication
ü Group communication
ü Mass communication
Interpersonal communication: It is a personal communication where one can share his feelings, ideas or thoughts to other. This type of communication is effective only in the physical presence of a person and by usage of all the 5 sense organs. Interpersonal communication can be possible directly as well as indirectly.
ü Direct Interpersonal Communication: Face-to-face
ü Indirect Interpersonal Communication: It may be by computer, mobile, or other communicating media. Such type of communication is called “machine aided communication”.
Intra personal communication: It is a type of communication occurring within ourselves such as thinking, dreaming, feeling, etc. This type of communication is important because it leads to successive communication.
For example while communicating with others we must think of certain points in mind such as language, usage of words, about the matter to be discussed, etc. In such case signals are generated within our self and these signals are received by brain. As a result it gives some response. This internal process is called intra personal communications.
Group communication: According to number involved in the group it is divided into small group communication and big group communication
Here number of people engages in interaction by sharing opinions, thoughts, ideas and feelings with one another. Group communication may include; various types of discussion, arguments, positive or negative responses, multiple opinions among the members.
Mass communication: According to Professor Jason R. Detrani “Mass communication is the academic study of the various means by which individuals and entities communicate information via mass media to large audience at the same time”.
Mass communication is a type of communication where huge numbers of people are involved. It is simple, fun and fast. Newspapers, weeklies, radio, television, internet, social networks, films, video cassettes, books, telephones etc are examples for mass communication.
In the fast moving world innumerable events occurs everyday. Mass media like television, radio and films can scatter news within least possible time. In the earlier days one had to carry information to the concerned by traveling in carts miles together from one place to another. Though postal services came to be established by the end of 19th century communication was difficult and time consuming as transport was pretty good. Today, the situation is not like that, we can communicate with the person at distant places.
Today we are in 21st century. Mass media is our window to the world and has definitely brought the world closer. It has stepped into every nook and corner of the world, which gives information as well as entertainment. It impacts on society and more on children. When sometimes back the serial Mr. Bean was carried on every kid used to enjoy his fun behavior. The film Spiderman/Superman/Bat man made their imprint on kids mind. Take the instance of”Kaun Banega Karodpathi”, every individuals, young and old people sit fixed in front of T.V. They neglect all their works and forget everything when they sit in front of it.
Process of communication:
Communication involves important elements such as:
Source: Source refers to the speaker. Source is the person who forms and delivers the message. In a effective communication source should develop some of the abilities such as communication skills, knowledge on the subject to be discussed, responsive, audience faith, should not speak from only one point of view, delivery of message based on the level of receiver, etc. Better we know the level of audience, perfect will be our communication.
Receiver: It refers to audience, one who receives the message from the source. Receiver can be of any number. Audiences are may not be of same nature (homogenous/heterogeneous) .Therefore the response from the audience varies according to their individual thinking capacity. The communication is successive only if the receiver can understand the message.
Message: Message refers to context. It is an information or request or set of codes having its own meaning. Messages could be verbal or nonverbal. Message should have its own theme and style. Message reflects its culture and subculture. Message can also send by using electronic media such as computer or mobile.
Channel: It refers to medium. Channel is used to send message from source to receiver. In earlier days limited and slow channels were there. In the present day with the expansion of society channels are also expanded to multiform. Mass Medias are for our knowledge of what is happening in the world. It is therefore the duty of media to tell us the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. A media should not distort news by suppressing certain facts. It is the duty of every channel of media to report them faithfully. Some of the commonly used communicating Medias are
ü News paper: It tells us what is happening in the world around us. It helps to know what is happening in our country as well as in other country. It gives us information about all the important incidents that have taken place in the world during the past 24 hours. It also gives the information about what is happening in the field of politics, sports, films, social welfare, crime, stocks and shares, etc. Newspapers not only give news but also comment on what is happening in the country and in the world.
ü Radio: Radio is an effective mass medium which helps us to know the world affairs. It is one of the media which is very popular today. Macrom invented radio and it is one of the gifts of science. It broadcasts plays, music, news, speeches, programmes related to women, children, workers, education, running commentaries of games, sports, etc. There are large numbers of radio stations in India giving programmes round the clock. Radio can run by electricity or by battery cells. Today we have pocket transistors and mobile phones have radio in it. Now a days FM radio stations are more popular because of their musical programmes.
ü Television: Just as the radio enables us to listen to the programmes broadcast by the radio stations, the television enable us to see and to hear the programmes telecast by the television centers. Thus the television enables us to see what is happening in distant places. We can able to see distant lands and people living there. It improves our knowledge of the world. News, quiz programmes, dance, drama, and film are telecasted. The television gives us instruction as well as entertainment.
Effect: It is predefined by source. It leaves imprint on audience. Effect plays an active role between source, receiver, message and channel.
There are two types of effect
ü Short-term effect: this type of effects last for a short time, which changes with people’s knowledge, attitudes, behavior and skills.
ü Long –term effect: It continues for long time in the future which changes with people’s action.
Feedback: It is nothing but response. Communication is process of sending as well as receiving of messages. Therefore when speaker delivers the message to receiver, there should be some response/ feedback from the audience. If there is feedback, which indicates the communication was successive. Feedback need not always face-to-face. It can be also by writing letter, mailing, SMS etc. In other words feedback could be verbal or non verbal.
Noise: This reduces the efficiency of the communication. It may affect either positively or negatively. By removing off the noise one can lead better communication. Noise can interfere between Source, Receiver, Message, and Channel.
Encoding: This is a process of converting message or information into code or expression. It is also set of symbol which helps us to communicate.
Decoding: It is a reverse process, where the message that has been written or spoken in a code can be change into ordinary languages.
Scientific process of communication:
We hear a person speaking when energy is emitted by the sound waves. Similarly we hear music from an instrument when it emits energy as sound waves. When these waves travel through air and enter our ears, we get the sensation of sound.
When we make a telephone call, a sound wave carries the message from our vocal chords to the telephone. There, electrical signal is generated which then propagates along the copper wire. The electrical signal generated may be transformed into a light signal or a microwave or a radio wave. The light signal is transmitted through optical fibre cables. The microwave or radio wave is transmitted through atmosphere, may be with the help of a communication satellite. At the receiving end, the electrical or light signal or microwave or radiowave is transformed back into sound wave, which another person can hear.
In radio broadcasting the sound of speech or music is transmitted as radiowaves through the atmosphere. The radiowaves reflected by the ion sphere is received by a receiver set and converted back to sound waves. We hear this sound when we tune our radio tune into radio receiver sets.
In TV transmission, the pictures and sound are transformed to electrical signals which then are transmitted through space as high frequency radiowaves. Using communication satellites, these waves are transmitted back to earth and received by the receiving antennas. Finally we can able to see and hear it on the TV screen. (Reference: Text book of physics Dr. A Shridhar and Dr.D Sudhakar Rao)
Communication is essential part of human’s life. It is not easy to be a good communicator. One, who wants to be so, should not monopolize the conversation but let others also talk. In a successive communication every individual plays his/her part. Besides one should avoid which are unfamiliar to the topic that to be discussed. The main advantage of communication is we will be in contact with many. As a result when we communicate with them we can able to gain knowledge from others. Effective communication has its own skills. If the speaker communicates with the knowledge of it communication will be successful.
A first look at communication theory by Em Griffin
Essentials of communication skills by Shalini Aggarwal